10 Parameter Urinalysis Test at Home

Ruth Keller
Ruth Keller
April 13, 2021
min read
Technically reviewed by: 
H. Ali, Ph.D.
10 Parameter Urinalysis Test at Home

What is urinalysis?

A urinalysis is a test of your urine. Urine is produced by the kidneys. The kidneys filter wastes out of the blood, help regulate the amount of water in the body and conserve a balanced level of proteins, electrolytes, and other compounds that the body can reuse. Urine is one of the most valuable biomarkers to assess health. Therefore, by examining the composition of urine, many disorders can be detected.

What is a urinalysis test strip?

A urinalysis strip (dipstick) is a narrow plastic strip with several square-shaped pads of different reagents attached. Each reagent pad represents a chemical parameter (a component of the urine test) used to interpret urinalysis. When dipped in the urine, the colors of the pads change in response to the chemical characteristics of the urine. The dipstick urinalysis test is very commonly used by physicians as an aid diagnosis of diseases and to monitor health.

A urinalysis strip can help in the general monitoring of health as well as in the detection of a broad spectrum of abnormalities.

How can at-home urine testing help?

A home-use urinalysis strip can enable you to monitor your health from the convenience of your home. Going to a medical professional for a urine test every time you think you have some issue can be time-consuming, expensive, and frustrating. At-home screening provides convenience and helps you stay proactive with regular and frequent urine screening, so you can get timely care when needed.

Urinalysis can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of many metabolic or systemic diseases that can go unnoticed because they haven't produced striking signs or symptoms yet.

10 parameters on a urine dipstick test

10 parameters of a urinalysis strip

A 10-parameter urine test strip such as Urinox-10 by Diagnox tests ten different urine parameters that include:

  1. Leukocytes (for possible inflammation)
  2. Nitrites (for bacteria in urine)
  3. Urobilinogen (for liver health)
  4. Protein (for kidney and urinary tract health)
  5. pH (for acidity and alkalinity of the urine sample)
  6. Blood (for visible and non-visible blood in urine)
  7. Specific Gravity (for hydration status and the body's ability to conserve water)
  8. Ketones (for diabetes and high-fat/low-carb diets)
  9. Bilirubin (for liver health)
  10. Glucose (for diabetes)

Urinalysis can assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of many metabolic and systemic diseases that can go unnoticed because they haven’t produced striking signs or symptoms yet.

How to conduct a urinalysis test?

You can easily conduct a urinalysis test with a urine dipstick at home or in professional settings by following these steps:

1. Immerse

Immerse the strip into the urine sample and remove it immediately by dragging the edge of the strip against the container rim to remove excess urine. If reading the strip visually, start timing.

It is essential that you always use a fresh urine specimen in a clean, dry container.

Urinalysis Step 1: Immerse the strip in the urine sample
Step 1: Immerse the strip in the urine sample

2. Wait

Place the strip horizontally on a paper towel or tissue to remove excess and wait until the results are ready to be read. The reading time for different tests is provided on the product packaging or package insert.

Urinalysis Step 2: Wait until the reagent colors are ready to read
Step 2: Wait until the reagent colors are ready to read

3. Compare

Compare each test pad to the corresponding row of the color chart on the package insert (or packaging) to find the closest match (see an example color chart below). It is essential to read the results carefully in a good light. Usually, changes in color that appear after 2 minutes are of no diagnostic significance – therefore, try to read results as soon as they are ready.

Urinalysis Step 3: Compare colors of the dipstick pads with the color chart
Step 3: Compare colors of the dipstick pads with the color chart

Urine test results color chart

The urinalysis color chart is a grid of colors that serve as a key for interpreting the results. Each row of color blocks represents possible color outcomes for each parameter. For a 10-parameter strip, you will find ten rows of color blocks, each representing possible color outcomes for the respective reagent/parameter.

It is advisable to use the color chart provided by the manufacturer to compare the colors of the reagent pads to interpret the results. A printed color chart (provided by the manufacturer) is calibrated and will offer better reliability. Colors may appear differently on a digital copy (e.g., from a screen image).

Color Chart for 10 Parameter Urinalysis Test - Urinox 10 by Diagnox

Reading times

The reading time refers to the time at which the color of the pad should be compared with the color key. The reading time varies for each parameter, ranging from 30 seconds (for the glucose pad) to 120 seconds (for the Leukocyte pad).

The reagent pads are ordered sequentially to help with visual reading at the correct times. The glucose pad is typically the lower-most pad, whereas the leukocyte pad is the top-most pad. When reading a dipstick, you read from the bottom pad (ready in 30 seconds) to the top pad (ready in 120 seconds).

Using a stopwatch can help you know the precise time when each test is ready for color comparison.

The reading times for the ten urinalysis parameters are given below:

  • Leukocytes: 2 minutes
  • Nitrites: 1 minute
  • Urobilinogen: 1 minute
  • Protein: 1 minute
  • pH: 1 minute
  • Blood: 1 minute
  • Specific Gravity: 45 seconds
  • Ketones: 40 seconds
  • Bilirubin: 30 seconds
  • Glucose: 30 seconds
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Interpretation of results


Leukocytes (white blood cells) are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious diseases and foreign invaders. A few white blood cells are normally present in urine and generally yield negative results. When the number of WBCs in urine increases significantly, this screening test will become positive. The presence of leukocytes (>10 cacells/uL) in urine may indicate infections in the urinary tract or kidneys.

Leukocytes in urine signify inflammation in the urinary tract. Clinical studies show that the leukocyte counts in urine increase when the body is fighting an infection.

The leukocyte reagent pad is nearly white or a shade of cream for a negative result.

For trace levels of leukocytes in urine, the reagent pad changes to a beige/brown color.

The reagent pad changes to a shade of purple for a positive result. The color strength is proportional to the concentration of leukocytes in urine, as shown in the image below.

Color key for leukocytes in urine.

Click on this link to learn more about Leukocytes in Urine in this blog.


Normal urine contains chemicals called nitrates. If bacteria enter the urinary tract, nitrates can turn into different, similarly named chemicals called nitrites. Nitrites in urine may be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). To detect UTI, the presence of leukocytes in urine is also considered. UTI can be present despite a negative Nitrite test (not all bacteria reduce nitrate to nitrite).

Nitrite in urine test is used to check bacteriuria, i.e., bacterial activity in the urine caused by nitrate-reducing bacteria.

The nitrite reagent pad yields a white to off-white color for a negative result. If the nitrite test is positive, the color changes to pink. Any shade of pink is considered a positive result for bacteria in the urine.

Color key for nitrite in urine.

Click on this link to learn more about nitrite in urine.


Urobilinogen is formed from the reduction of bilirubin. Bilirubin is a yellowish substance found in the liver that helps break down red blood cells. Normal urine contains some urobilinogen (up to 1.0 mg/dL). If there is little or no urobilinogen in urine, it can mean the liver isn't working correctly. Too much urobilinogen (> 2 mg/dL) in urine may indicate liver diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis.

The color of the reagent pad will produce a light cream/peach to peach color for normal urobilinogen levels in the urine. Higher levels of urobilinogen in urine will produce a pink color on the reagent pad. Higher the level, the brighter the shade of pink, as shown in the image below.

Color key for urobilinogen in urine.

Click this link to learn about urobilinogen in urine and its relationship to liver health.


A protein in urine test measures how much protein is in your urine. Proteins are substances that are essential for the body to function properly. Protein is normally found in the blood. If there is a problem with the kidneys, protein can leak into the urine. While a small amount is normal, a large amount of protein in the urine may indicate kidney disease. When urine protein is elevated, a person has a condition called proteinuria. Persistently elevated protein levels in urine can result from urological or nephrological disorders and require medical intervention.

Protein in the urine can be caused by several factors – follow this link to learn about the causes of protein in the urine.

The reagent pad changes to a light green color for a negative result.

For a positive urine protein result, the color of the reagent pad changes into darker shades of green. The intensity of the color is proportionate to the protein concentration in the urine (darker shades of green correspond to the higher concentration of protein).

Color key for protein in urine.

Follow this link for in-depth, easy-to-understand information on protein in the urine or proteinuria.

Protein in urine is linked to several diseases. Lifestyle changes can help manage protein in the urine.


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. Normal urine is slightly acidic, with pH values ranging from 5 to 8. A high urine pH (>8) indicates alkaline urine and may be due to kidneys that do not properly remove acids from the body or due to kidney failure, stomach pumping (gastric suction), urinary tract infection, or vomiting. A low urine pH may be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, diarrhea, starvation, and too much acid in the body fluids (metabolic acidosis). Urinary pH is a vital indicator of kidney, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and metabolic health.

Urine pH can also help determine how effectively kidneys regulate the pH balance in the body. It is vital to know that pH alone cannot provide all answers to bodily function; when combined with other urine parameters, it helps diagnose several health conditions.

The reagent pad changes from orange for acidic urine to shades of green for alkaline urine, as shown in the color key below.

Color key for pH of urine.

Learn about what to make of the pH of urine in this blog.


Blood in the urine is also known as hematuria and may be a sign of possible kidney damage, infection, kidney or bladder stones, kidney or bladder cancer, or blood disorders. Blood is often, but not always, found in the urine of menstruating females.

Blood in the urine is not a normal finding, but it is not uncommon and not necessarily a cause for alarm for acute episodes. Persistently elevated blood in urine requires professional evaluation. To devise a proper treatment plan, your healthcare practitioner will determine the source and underlying cause.

The test pad for blood will produce a yellow color for a negative result. The reagent pad will turn a shade of green for a positive result. Higher the concentration of blood in urine, the deeper the color on the reagent pad. If you see green spots on a yellow pad, it represents intact blood cells. Learn more about green spots on the blood test pad here.

Color key for blood in urine.

Follow this blog to understand what it means to have blood in urine and how to differentiate between benign episodes and symptoms that require medical attention.

Specific Gravity

Urine specific gravity is a measure of the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine.

Healthy adults have urine specific gravity ranging from 1.003 to 1.030. Reduced specific gravity may indicate diabetes and other renal disorders, while elevated levels indicate liver disease, excessive loss of free water, or congestive heart failure. A higher-than-normal concentration often is a result of not drinking enough fluids. In addition to knowing the body's hydration status, by monitoring the specific gravity of urine, you can learn how effectively kidneys regulate the fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

The reagent pad changes to a dark green color for dilute urine. The urine pad color changes to yellowish green for higher urine concentrations.

Color key for specific gravity of urine.


Ketones are chemicals (a type of acid) made in our liver. Everyone has them, but they are more prevalent in people who fast or are on low-carb/high-fat diets or individuals with chronic conditions like diabetes that inhibit the body's ability to produce sufficient insulin. The presence of ketones in urine can mean very different things to people with different conditions.

Ketones are produced when the body burns fat for energy or fuel. They are also produced when you lose weight or if there is not enough insulin to help your body use sugar for energy. Ketones are not normally found in the urine. They can form when a person does not eat enough carbohydrates (for example, in cases of fasting, starvation, or high-protein diets) or when a person's body cannot use carbohydrates properly. When carbohydrates are not available, the body metabolizes fat instead to get the energy it needs to keep functioning.

If you are on a ketogenic diet, detecting ketones in the urine is indicative of a metabolic state called ketosis which leads to weight loss and fat burning.

Increased ketone levels are a sign of insufficient insulin and are found in diabetes, starvation, vomiting, digestive disorders, pregnancy, and febrile states. Ketones in urine in diabetes require prompt medical intervention to prevent complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

The reagent pad on the urine test strip yields a peach color for a negative ketone result. The color of the reagent pad changes to deeper shades of pink and purple depending on the concentration of ketones in the urine, as shown in the color key below.

Color key for ketones in urine.

Learn more about ketones in urine and ketone test strips in this blog.


Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment found in bile, a fluid produced by the liver. Bilirubin is not present in the urine of normal, healthy individuals. Increased bilirubin levels ((Bilirubinuria) indicate different forms of liver disease, e.g., cirrhosis, hepatitis, gallstone, biliary tract disease, and is an early indicator of jaundice development. Even trace amounts of bilirubin are sufficiently abnormal to require further investigation.

For a negative bilirubin in urine result, the reagent pad will yield a cream to light-yellow color.

Any shade of peach, pink, purple, or brown indicates a positive result for bilirubin in urine. The color intensity of the reagent pad increases with the concentration of bilirubin in urine.

Color key for bilirubin in urine.

Learn more about bilirubin in the urine and how it relates to liver health in this blog.


Glucose is normally not present in urine. When glucose is present, the condition is called glucosuria. This often happens if there is an abnormally high level of glucose present in the blood. The normal glucose range in urine is 0 to 0.8 mmol/l (0 to 15 mg/dL). Higher values may occur with diabetes, renal glycosuria, or during pregnancy (due to gestational diabetes).

A negative result for glucose in the urine is indicated by a bright blue or aqua-green color. Trace to small amounts of glucose in urine yields a dull green color, whereas higher concentrations change the pad color to brown.

Color key for glucose in urine.

Learn more about glucose in urine in this blog.

What factors can affect urine test results?

Factors such as medications, supplements, vitamins, and diets, can interact with the reagent pads and affect the readings.

It is essential to know that urinalysis strips are semi-quantitative, which means the colors produced by the strip may not be a 100% match with the color key. In such cases, find the closest color possible for colors that fall in-between two color blocks.

Track your urinalysis data with the Urinox mobile app

Use the Urinox app on Apple App Store or Google Play Store to record, track, and share your urinalysis data easily. You can view trends in your data in graphical format and share them with your medical professional if required.

Urinox-10 urinalysis test strips

Individually packaged Urinox-10 Urinalysis Test Strips by Diagnox
Individually packaged urine test strips by Diagnox

Urinox-10 urinalysis test strips by Diagnox include clinical-grade reagent pads for the analysis of 10 parameters to assist diagnosis and monitoring of several health conditions that affect kidney and liver function, metabolic and endocrine disorders, and urinary tract infections. Urinox-10 strips are designed for both laboratory and point-of-care use. Each test is individually wrapped in a medical-grade sealed pouch, ensuring that each strip is fresh and not altered by atmospheric conditions, so you get a reliable test result every time. This is the same kind of test medical professionals use to assist in diagnosis.

Get Urinox-10 urinalysis test now.

  1. Mayo Clinic Staff, “Urinalysis,” Mayo Clinic. Accessed March 18, 2021.
  2. WebMD Editorial Contributors, “Urinalysis (Urine Test),” WebMD, Accessed March 18, 2021.
  3. NIH Staff, “Urinalysis,” Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia – National Library of Medicine, NIH. Accessed March 18, 2021.
  4. Diagnox Staff, "Urinox-10 Urinalysis Test Strips." Product IFU Insert, Diagnox Health.
About the Author
Ruth Keller

Ruth Keller is a seasoned medical reporter and healthcare writer with over 25 years of experience in the industry. With a passion for uncovering and sharing the latest developments in medicine and healthcare, Ruth has established herself as a trusted and respected voice in the field.

With a deep understanding of healthcare's scientific, social, and political dimensions, Ruth is known for her ability to translate complex medical concepts into clear and accessible language.

As a senior writer for Diagnox, Ruth has the opportunity to work with a team of professionals from various scientific backgrounds and share her knowledge with a broad audience. Whether she is writing about the latest research on disease prevention or the importance of proper nutrition, Ruth is always looking for ways to educate and empower readers to take control of their health.

Ruth continues her passion for healthcare using her extensive knowledge and expertise to inform and educate the public on the most pressing issues in healthcare.

About the Reviewer
This blog was
Technically reviewed by: 
H. Ali, Ph.D.

Hussnain Ali received his Ph.D. degree in EE in 2015 from the University of Texas at Dallas, USA. He is the co-founder and the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) at Diagnox Health, Plano, TX 75024, USA, and a visiting research scientist at the University of Texas at Dallas. His academic and industry experience spans over 15 years in organizations like the Center for Advanced Research in Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, and Harman/Samsung. He has served as a co-PI on an RO1 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). His research interests include biomedical devices, auditory rehabilitation, and cochlear implants. He has authored and co-authored over 70 international publications and has been awarded multiple US patents. His latest work at Diagnox encompasses the development of innovative healthcare and wellness products/solutions that provide convenient and affordable at-home screening/diagnosis. He aims to bridge conventional clinical diagnostic products with Artificial Intelligence (AI) and contemporary data-centric technologies to modernize the healthcare and wellness industry.

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